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Kalikantzari and Theophaneia

Kalikantzari and Theophaneia

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Kalikantzari, (singular Kalikantzaros), which are malevolent goblins, in Greek and Cypriot folklore tradition, get out of the depth of earth during the twelve days of Christmas.

Their job is to destroy the trunk of the tree, where the earth sits on, so that it can collapse and when it is ready to collapse they get out and stroll around in the dark, to torture people in many ways.

Kallikatzaros image
Kallikatzaros image – wikipedia

When we were kids and heard stories told about them we were scared to death.

Kalikantzari, were described to us as ugly creatures, partly human and partly animal, having horns and tails, goat shaped beards, skinny or fat, short or tall, either getting into houses from the chimneys, steeling food, or urinating on food and mostly playing tricks on people.

In the villages, superstitious housewives would seal the chimneys and any holes in the doors and windows so that Kalikantzari couldn’t get in. 

They would throw pieces of meat, sausages or xerotigana (kind of fried dough like doughnuts) on the roof, to keep them occupied and not get in the houses, saying:  

“Titsi, titsi loukaniko, kommati xerotianon, na fasin kai na fyousin”.  This is freely translated as “Let them eat sausages and doughnuts so that they can go away”.

Cypriot Xerotigana image

Cypriot Xerotigana my way (fried yeasted batter)

Yield: 30
Prep Time: 10 minutes
Cook Time: 15 minutes
Additional Time: 1 hour
Total Time: 1 hour 25 minutes

Xerotigana (pr. Ksae -roh -TEE - gha - na), is a simple recipe, made with flour, baking powder, salt and water to make a thick batter and then fried.   They are served with sugar, honey or other syrups, such as leftover syrups from fruit presereves (glyka tou koutaliou) but can also be served with petimezi or haroupomelo.


  • 1/2 cube fresh yeast (17 grams)
  • 1 teaspoon sugar (any kind)
  • 1 1/2 cups lukewarm water
  • 1/4 tsp salt
  • All purpose flour (about 2 - 3 cups)
  • 1 tsp fresh ginger, grated (optional)
  • 1 tsp orange or lemon zest (optional)
  • 1 couverture chocolate, cut into small pieces (optional)
  • Olive oil or vegetable oil for frying
  • Greek thyme honey
  • Extra oil to dip the spoon in


  1. Dissolve the yeast with 1/2 cup lukewarm water, sugar and a couple tablespoons flour. Cover and set aside until it bubbles.
  2. Add all the ingredients (except chocolate and ginger) in a bowl and add the water gradually until you have a thick batter. Cover and set aside until it doubles in volume. (At this stage, you have the traditional recipe).
  3. Mix in the chocolate and ginger.
  4. Heat the olive oil in a deep frying pan or pot so that it is about 3 - 4 cm high.
  5. Take a tablespoon batter with one piece of chocolate in it and pour it in the oil. After several additions, dip your spoon in the extra oil so that the batter slips easily away.
  6. Fry until golden on both sides.
  7. Remove to a platter and add lots of honey on top as well as any leftover chocolate shavings/pieces.
Nutrition Information
Yield 30 Serving Size 1
Amount Per Serving Calories 35Total Fat 2gSaturated Fat 0gTrans Fat 0gUnsaturated Fat 1gCholesterol 1mgSodium 32mgCarbohydrates 4gFiber 0gSugar 1gProtein 1g

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On the Eve of Theophaneia, (which means appearance of God) or Phota (which means The Lights) as Epiphany is called, the priest would pass from all the houses, sprinkling holy water to bless the people living there and the kalikantzari would be expelled to go back sawing the trunk holding the foundations of earth, until the next Christmas.

On the day of Epiphany there is the great “Agiasmos” (the word also refers to the holy water itself), service in the church, some of that water  is kept with the family icons and is believed to have healing properties.

After the service in church all people are gathered wherever there are ports, rivers or lakes, even swimming pools and  the priest throws the cross into the water, even if the temperature is below 0 C and a few young men and brave girls will dive in to retrieve it – the one who catches the cross is considered to be blessed for all the year.

The celebrations throughout the Twelve days of Christmas, called Dodekaimera, period until Epiphany, (6th January), end on Epiphany day where Greek Christmas celebrations conclude with the feast called  “Ta Phota” meaning “The Lights”.   

In the Orthodox Church this feast is important as the baptism of Christ.   On the Eve of this day the priest would go round all houses and perform “ayiasmos” sprinkle holy water to bless the houses and all those who live there.  

It is believed that this visit by the priest would expel the “kallikantzari” who leave before they can finish sawing the world’s foundations.   

Years back children would pass from the houses singing Phota kalanta but these traditions do not appear any more in the big towns where parents are afraid to let their children knock on  doors of people they do not know and trust but in some villages these traditions still exist.

These are the carols sung during Theophaneia:

Chronia Polla!

Kopiaste and Kali Orexi!

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Monday 11th of May 2009

If you have to do it, you might as well do it right


Monday 11th of May 2009

Beautiful site!


Sunday 10th of May 2009

I want to say - thank you for this!


Sunday 10th of May 2009

Nice site! Thank you!


Tuesday 6th of January 2009

Peter, it is quite cold, especially this year.

Niki, in some parts of Greece, e.g. like Piraeus, where the waters are polluted, nobody dives in. The cross is attached to a big ribbon, which the priest then pulls out.

Deeba, I must go and read what Tartlette has written.

Elias, you are absolutely right about how many traditions passed on from paganism to Christianity and the priests did take advantage of the illiteracy of the people to have them scared and believe. Regarding "lokmades" or "xerotiana", as we call them in Cyprus, I translated it as doughnuts and I forgot to mention their song: "Titsi, titsi (meat) loukaniko, kommati xerotigano, na fame kai na figoume.." for those who want to know what that means they are calling out for "meat, sausages or pieces of doughnut, so that they can eat and then leave".. Thanks for passing by and leaving your comment.

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